What is a Hypothesis?
- Strode (2015) Hypothesis Generation in Biology: A Science Teaching Challenge & Potential Solution. The American Biology Teacher, 77(7): 500-506.
- Writing a scientific hypothesis (teacher guide) (student guide) – Paul Strode
- Hypotheses and theories explained – Understanding Science, UC Berkley
- Hypothesis misconceptions – Understanding Science, UC Berkley
- The difference between a prediction and hypothesis (slides) – Paul Strode
- Scientific vs. Statistical Hypotheses
The Process of Science
- What is science?
- Community of Practice model of teaching science through inquiry (Van Andel Institute)
- Science as a process (flowchart)
- Understanding Science’s teacher resources
- What is Science? video – Science Forward
- Observational vs. Hypothesis Driven Studies
Reading Primary Literature
Graphing & Data Interpretation
- Data Nugget Guide to Graphing
- Data Nugget Tool for Constructing Explanations using Claim-Evidence-Reasoning
- Graph Choice Chart (GCC) – a tool to help students turn data into evidence
- AP Biology Quantitative Skills – a guide for teachers
- Excel Easy – Excel online tutorials
- Excel self-guided lessons
- Data Points – HHMI – interpret and discuss figures from primary literature
- HHMI Teacher Guide: Math and Statistics – Topics include measures of average (mean, median, mode), variability (range, standard deviation), uncertainty (standard error, 95% confidence interval), Chi-square analysis, student t-test, Hardy-Weinberg equation, frequency calculations, and more.
- Data and Error Analysis in Science – Beginners Guide (mean, median, mode, range, standard deviation, variance, standard error, and confidence intervals) – Strode and Brokaw
- Error Bars – Interpretation of SD, SE, and CI
- Teaching independent vs. dependent variables
- ANOVA – Student Guide – Paul Strode
- Regression Analysis – Student Guide – Paul Strode
- Chi-square Test – Student Guide – Paul Strode
- t-test – Student Guide – Paul Strode
- Mean, standard deviation (SD), standard error (SE)
- Standard error (SE) visualization tool – explore the effects of variance and sample size on SE
- Variable types, t-test, regression
- Flowchart for statistics used in biology – Paul Strode
- Statistics for Biologists (nature.com)
Using Data in the Classroom
- Using Data in the Classroom – information and background about pedagogical or practical issues in using data in the classroom
- DataONE – DataONE is committed to educating the community about data stewardship, including outlining best practices for data management and providing educational materials for use by those that support researchers.