There are key science and math concepts and skills included in Data Nuggets. Before using Data Nuggets in your classroom, students should be familiar with these inquiry themes. If you are interested in introducing a particular skill or concept to your class, Data Nuggets can be searched by skills and concepts here.
Below is a collection of lesson plans and resources that will help prepare teachers and students before using Data Nuggets in the classroom:
What is a Hypothesis?
- Strode (2015) Hypothesis Generation in Biology: A Science Teaching Challenge & Potential Solution. The American Biology Teacher, 77(7): 500-506.
- Writing a scientific hypothesis (teacher guide) (student guide) – Paul Strode
- Hypotheses and theories explained – Understanding Science, UC Berkley
- Hypothesis misconceptions – Understanding Science, UC Berkley
- The difference between a prediction and hypothesis (slides) – Paul Strode
- Scientific vs. Statistical Hypotheses
The Process of Science
- What is science?
- Science as a process (flowchart)
- Understanding Science’s teacher resources
- What is Science? video – Science Forward
- Observational vs. Hypothesis Driven Studies
Reading Primary Literature
- The Graph Choice Chart (GCC) – a tool to help students turn data into evidence
- AP Biology Quantitative Skills – A guide for teachers
- Excel tutorials
- Excel lesson worksheets
- HHMI Teacher Guide: Math and Statistics – Topics include measures of average (mean, median, mode), variability (range, standard deviation), uncertainty (standard error, 95% confidence interval), Chi-square analysis, student t-test, Hardy-Weinberg equation, frequency calculations, and more.
- Data and Error Analysis in Science – Beginners Guide (mean, median, mode, range, standard deviation, variance, standard error, and confidence intervals) – Strode and Brokaw
- ANOVA – Student Guide – Paul Strode
- Regression Analysis – Student Guide – Paul Strode
- Chi-square Test – Student Guide – Paul Strode
- t-test – Student Guide – Paul Strode
- Mean, standard deviation (SD), standard error (SE)
- Lesson plan
- Worksheets: (red) (blue)
- Variable types, t-test, regression
- Lesson plan
- Case studies: (A) (B) (C)
- Flowchart for statistics used in biology – Paul Strode
- Statistics for Biologists (nature.com)