Data Nugget Workshop at NABT 2015: A Tail of Two Scorpions

You can get the slides from our NABT talk here: A Tail of Two Scorpions

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How to Escape a Predator

A stalk-eyed fly and spider interacting in the arena.

A stalk-eyed fly and spider interacting in the arena.

The activities are as follows:

Stalk-eyed flies are insects that have their eyes on the ends of eyestalks, or long projections from the sides of their head. Eyestalks are a sexual signal that males use to attract females. The longer the eyestalks, the more attractive a male is to females and the more mates he gets. For these flies, sexual selection leads to an elaborate trait, just like a peacock’s tail. Males with longer eyestalks have more babies and pass their traits on. Over generations, sexual selection leads to longer and longer eyestalks in males.

However, these eyestalks may come with a cost. Males with longer eyestalks may not be able to move easily and quickly. If they can’t move as fast, males with long eyestalks are potentially worse at escaping predators. Natural selection may select against long eyestalks if males with more elaborate traits are killed and eaten more often by predators. If predators eat males with longer eyestalks before the flies reproduce, they will not get to pass on their traits, regardless of how attractive they are to females.

Variation between stalk-eyed fly species in eyestalk length.

Variation between stalk-eyed fly species in eyestalk length.

In addition to eyestalk length, other traits could affect survival in male stalk-eyed flies. Perhaps the fly’s behavior is more important than its eyestalk length when faced with a predator. When biologists Amy and John first started researching how eyestalk length affected survival, they noticed something intriguing! The flies showed many different behaviors when face to face with a spider predator. Some examples of behaviors included grooming, walking or flying towards the predator, quickly walking or flying away from the predator, displaying forelegs, and bobbing their abdomens. When prey use these antipredator behaviors, predators must put in more work to catch prey, and they will sometimes give up. Therefore, antipredator behaviors may influence the predator’s choice of prey, and certain behaviors that make prey harder to catch could lead to increased survival.

To test whether differences in eye stalk length and/or antipredator behavior were important for survival, male stalk-eyed flies were put in cages with predators. Amy and John filmed the fly behaviors and analyzed the footage. They calculated the frequency and proportion of time that flies were displaying antipredator behaviors. If males with longer eyestalks have lower survival than males with shorter eyestalks, it suggests that longer eyestalks make it harder to avoid predators. However, if eyestalk length has no effect on survival, it suggests that male flies with long eyestalks are able to compensate for their lack of speed through behavior.

Featured scientists: Amy Worthington and John Swallow from Washington State University and University of Colorado, Denver. Written by: Brooke Ravanelli from Denver Public Schools and John Swallow.

Flesch–Kincaid Reading Grade Level = 10.7

There is a scientific paper associated with the data in this Data Nugget. The citation and PDF for the paper is below.

Video showing how the long eyestalks of males form!

Videos of a stalk eyed fly and spider predator together in cages. First video shows male fly displaying, grooming, and approaching spider.

A tail of two scorpions

Ashlee & Matt Rowe

Ashlee and Matt Rowe at the Santa Rita Experimental Range in Arizona

The activities are as follows:

Animals have many ways to defend against predators. Many species use camouflage to avoid being seen. Others rely on speed to escape. Some species avoid capture by hiding in a safe place. Other animals use painful and venomous bites or stings to try to prevent attacks or to make capture more difficult. Anyone who has been stung by a bee or wasp understands how stinging could be a great way to keep predators away! However, there is little research that documents if painful stings or bites deter predators.

The grasshopper mouse lives at the base of the Santa Rita Mountains in Arizona. Scientists Ashlee and Matt have been studying this mouse for many years and wanted to know what the mouse ate. In the mountains, there are two scorpions that make a great food source for the mice. One of the scorpion species has a painful sting. The other species is slightly larger, but its sting is not painful. Ashlee and Matt thought that painful, venomous stings would prevent predator attacks and that the painless species would be attacked and eaten more often.

The Santa Rita foothills - habitat for the grasshopper mouse and scorpions

The Santa Rita foothills – habitat for the grasshopper mouse and scorpions

The scientists collected six grasshopper mice from the wild. Back in the lab, they trained the mice to expect a food reward when they tipped over a small cup containing live prey. Once trained, the mice were used in an experiment. The mice were presented with two cups to choose from. One contained the scorpion species that has a painful sting. The other cup contained the scorpion species that has a painless sting. Ashlee and Matt collected data on which cup the mice chose to approach, inspect, or pursue (by tipping over the cup). They also recorded if the mice attacked or consumed the painless or painful species of scorpion. Each trial ended when the mouse finished consuming one of the scorpions. If painful stings prevent a predator from attacking, they predicted the mice would choose to eat the scorpion species with the painless sting more often.

Watch a video of one of the experimental trials:

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Mouse Trial
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Watch three additional videos on the grasshopper mouse and scorpions:

Images of the southern grasshopper mouse (Onychomys torridus) capturing and eating the painful species of scorpion (Centruroides sculpturatus).

Ot vs Cs 4

Ot vs Cs 1

Ot vs Cs 2

Size differences of the two scorpions used in the experiments (painful Arizona bark scorpion, Centruroides sculpturatus is on the left; painless stripe-tailed scorpion, Hoffmannius spinigerus on the right)size comparison 1 (1 of 1)

Featured scientists: Ashlee and Matt Rowe from Michigan State University

Undergraduate researchers also involved with the project: Travis Tate and Crystal Niermann from SHSU; Rolando Barajas, Hope White, and Amber Suto from Michigan State University

Flesch–Kincaid Reading Grade Level = 7.1

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How the cricket lost its song, Part I

Screen Shot 2015-06-22 at 12.41.05 PMThe activities are as follows:

Some of the most vibrant and elaborate traits in the animal kingdom are signals used to attract mates. These mating signals include the bright feathers and loud calls of birds or the swimming dances performed by fish. Most of the time the males of the species perform the mating signals, and females use those signals to choose a mate. While mating signals help attract females, they may also attract unwanted attention from other species, like predators.
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Robin is a scientist who studies the mating signals of Pacific field crickets. These crickets live on several of the Hawaiian Islands. Male field crickets make a loud, long-distance song to help females find them and then switch to a quiet courtship song once a female comes in close. Males use specialized structures on the wings to produce songs.

One summer, Robin noticed that the crickets on one of the islands, Kauai, were unusually quiet. Only a couple of years before, Kauai had been a very loud place to work; however, that year Robin heard no males singing! After taking the crickets back to the lab, she noticed that there was something different about the males’ wings on Kauai. Most (95%) of males were missing all of the structures that are used to produce the calling and courtship songs—they had completely lost the ability to produce song! She decided to call this new type of male a flatwing male. But why did these males have flat wings?

Screen Shot 2015-06-22 at 12.29.38 PMOn Kauai, songs of the male crickets attract female crickets, but they are also overheard by a deadly parasitoid fly. The fly sprays its larvae on the backs of the crickets. The larvae then burrow into the crickets’ body cavity and eat them from the inside out! Because flatwing males cannot produce songs, flat wings may help male crickets remain unnoticed by the parasitoid flies. To test this idea, Robin dissected the males to look for fly larvae. She compared infection levels for 67 normal males—collected before the flatwing mutation appeared in the population—to 122 flatwing males that she collected after the flatwing mutation appeared. She expected fewer males to be infected by the parasitoid fly after the appearance of the flatwing mutation in the cricket population.

Featured scientist: Robin Tinghitella from the University of Denver

Flesch–Kincaid Reading Grade Level = 9.1

Additional teacher resources related to this Data Nugget include:

  • A video introducing the study system and describing how, in fewer than 20 generations, crickets on the island of Kuai went from singing to silent!

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Shooting the poop

The activities are as follows:butterfly

Imagine walking through a forest in the middle of summer. You can hear birds chirping, a slight breeze rustling the leaves, and a faint pinging noise like rain. However, what you hear is not rain – it is the sound of millions of forest insects pooping!

If we look closer to see who is making all this frass (insect poop) you’ll notice there are tons of caterpillars amongst the leaves. You might see caterpillars eating plants and hiding from predators. Some caterpillars might camouflage themselves, while others build shelters from leaves to avoid being seen. Others are brightly colored to warn predators that they have chemicals that make them taste awful.

The silver-spotted skipper is a caterpillar that lives in the forest. They have a variety of defense strategies against enemies, including building leaf shelters for protection. For these insects, the sight and smell of poop might alert predators that there is a tasty meal nearby. Usually caterpillars keep moving and leave their frass behind, but this species builds shelters and isn’t able to keep moving because they need their shelters for protection.

Martha is a behavioral biologist who studies these insects. While raising silver-spotted skipper caterpillars in the lab, Martha noticed that they were making a pinging noise in their containers. Upon further observation, she discovered that they “shoot their poop”, sometimes launching their frass over 1.5m! Martha wanted to figure out why these caterpillars might have this very strange behavior. Perhaps launching their frass is a way to avoid being found by predators.

To evaluate whether the smell of frass helps predators find and locate silver-spotted skippers, Martha conducted an experiment with a wasp predator that eats these caterpillars. She allowed two silver-spotted skippers to build shelters on a leaf and then carefully removed the caterpillars. She then inserted 6 frass pellets into one of the shelters, and 6 beads designed to look like frass but with no smell (control treatment) into the other shelter. She placed the leaf with the two shelters in a cage containing an actively foraging wasp colony (n = 10 wasps). She recorded how many times the wasps visited each shelter (control beads or frass) and how much time the wasps spent exploring each shelter. She expected wasps would spend more time exploring the shelters with the frass than they would the control shelters.

Featured scientist: Martha Weiss from Georgetown University. Written by Kylee Grenis.

Flesch–Kincaid Reading Grade Level = 9.6

Additional teacher resources related to this Data Nugget include:

YouTube videos of the silver-spotted skipper (Epargyreus clarus) “shooting its poop” (aka. ballistic defecation). These videos would be great to show in class after students have read the Research Background section to help engage them with the system.

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Sexy smells

Danielle holding a male junco. Notice the white tail feathers.

Danielle holding a male junco. Notice the white tail feathers.

The activities are as follows:

Animals collect information about each other and the rest of the world using multiple senses, including sight, sound, and smell. They use this information to decide what to eat, where to live, and who to pick as a mate. Choosing a mate is an important decision that requires a lot of information, such as how healthy a potential partner is, and information about their genes. Mate quality can affect how many offspring an animal has and if their genes will get passed on to the next generation.

Danielle removing preen oil from a junco.

Danielle removing preen oil from a junco.

Many male birds have brightly colored feathers that are attractive to females. For example, the peacock has bright and elaborate tail feathers, called ornaments, which are thought to communicate a male’s quality. Besides using their sense of sight to see ornaments, female birds may use their other senses to gather information about potential mates as well. Danielle, a biologist, wanted to figure out if birds use vision and their other senses, such as smell, to determine the quality of potential mates.

Danielle decided to research how dark-eyed juncos communicate through their sense of sight and smell. Dark-eyed juncos, a type of sparrow, are not colorful birds like peacocks, but they have bright white feathers in their tails. Male dark-eyed juncos have more tail-white than females. Females may use the amount of white in a male’s tail to determine whether he is a high quality mate. Danielle was also interested in several chemical compounds found in junco preen oil, which birds spread on their feathers. This preen oil contains compounds that give birds their odor. Danielle found that males and females have different odors! Just as males have more white in their tail feathers, they also produce more of a chemical called 2-pentadecanone. Danielle wanted to test whether this chemical might be a signal of mate quality.

A preen gland where birds produce preen oil.

A preen gland where birds produce preen oil.

To test her two alternative hypotheses, Danielle captured male juncos at Mountain Lake Biological Station in Virginia. She measured their amount of tail-white by estimating the proportion of each tail feather that was white, and adding up the values from each feather. She also took preen oil samples and measured the percent of each sample that was made up of 2-pentadecanone. She followed these birds for one breeding season to find out how many offspring they had. If females pick mates based on visual ornaments, then she predicted males with more tail-white would have more offspring. If females pick mates based on smell, then she predicted males with more 2-pentadecanone would have more offspring.

Featured scientist: Danielle Whittaker from Michigan State University

Flesch–Kincaid Reading Grade Level = 9.4

To learn more about Danielle’s work with juncos, see her blog posts “The sweet smell of (reproductive) success” and “Deciphering avian aromas” on the BEACON website. To learn more about Danielle and her research, check out this episode from the PBS/NOVA webseries “The Secret Life of Scientists and Engineers” where she was featured.

There is a scientific paper associated with the data in this Data Nugget. The citation and PDF for the paper is below.

Whittaker, D., N.M. Gerlach, H.A. Soinic, M.V. Novotnyc, and E.D. Ketterson (2013) Bird odour predicts reproductive success. Animal Behaviour 86(4): 697-703

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Fish fights

A male in his territory (front) and an intruding male (back)

A male in his territory (front) and an intruding male (back)

The activities are as follows:

In many animals, males fight for territories. Getting a good territory and making sure other males don’t steal it is very important! Males use these territories to attract females for mating. The males that get the best territories are more likely to mate with females and have more babies. Only the males that have babies will pass on their genes to the next generation.

Stickleback fish use the shallow bottom areas of lakes to mate. Male stickleback fish fight each other to gain the best territories in this habitat. In their territories, males build a nest out of sand, aquatic plants, and glue they produce from their kidneys. The better the nest, the more females a male can attract. Males then use courtship dances to attract females to their nests. If a female likes a male, she will deposit her eggs in his nest. Then the male will care for those eggs and protect the offspring that hatch.

Scientist Alycia out in the field collecting male stickleback fish for her experiments

Scientist Alycia out in the field collecting male stickleback fish for her experiments

Alycia is a scientist who is interested in understanding what makes a male stickleback a good fighter and defender of his territory. Perhaps more aggressive males are better at defending their territory and nests because they are better at fighting off other males. She used sticklebacks she collected from British Columbia to test her hypothesis.

In her experiment, 24 males were kept in 6 large tanks, with 4 males in each tank. Alycia watched each of the 24 males every day for 10 days. She recorded the behaviors of each fish when they were competing for territories, defending their territory, and building their nests. She also recorded the size of the males’ territories and whether they had a nest each day.

Featured scientist: Alycia R. Lackey from Michigan State University

Flesch–Kincaid Reading Grade Level = 7.7

More news on Alycia’s work on stickleback fish can be found at her BEACON blog post, “Making and Breaking a Species” and her blog post for the MSU museum

A male (right) defending his territory from another fish (left).

A male (right) defending his territory from another fish (left).

Which guy should she choose?

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A male stickleback tending his nest. Notice the male’s bright red throat, blue eye, and blue-green body.

The activities are as follows:

In many animals, males use complex behaviors to attract females. They use displays to show off colorful parts of their bodies, like feathers or scales. For example, male peacocks fan out and shake their colorful tails to attract female attention. These displays take up a lot of energy, and yet some males are unable to attract any females while other males attract many females.

In stickleback fish, males are very colorful to attract females. Their throats turn bright red during the spring when they mate. Stickleback males also court females with zig-zag swimming! The males swim in a z-shaped pattern in front of the female, probably to show off their mating colors. Before male fish can get the attention of female fish, they must gain a territory and build a nest. In sticklebacks, females inspect nests that the males build and then decide if they want to deposit their eggs. Males care for the offspring before and after the eggs hatch. A female fish would benefit from identifying “high quality” males and choosing those males for mates. High quality males would have more energy to protect their offspring and would make better fathers. They could also pass on genes that make offspring more attractive to females in the next generation.

Scientist Alycia collecting fish from a freshwater lake in British Columbia, Canada.

Scientist Alycia collecting fish from a freshwater lake in British Columbia, Canada.

Alycia is a scientist who is interested in the stickleback’s mating behaviors. She wanted to figure out why there are differences between males and why certain males can attract a mate while others cannot. What is it about the way a male looks, moves, or smells that attracts females? What male traits are females looking at when deciding on a mate? Alycia thought female sticklebacks may choose males with redder throats and/or more complex behaviors because those traits show the female that those males are high quality. Previous work with these fish showed that male behavior, color, or territory size, or the presence of a nest could all be important. But it was still not clear which characteristic might be most important.

Alycia set up an experiment to figure out if male throat color or zig-zag swimming behaviors were attractive to females. She used a total of 24 male fish and six 75-gallon tanks. She divided the males up evenly between the large tanks, placing four males in each one. For 10 days she observed the male fish and recorded competition behaviors, territory defense, and nest building. On the tenth day, she introduced one female to each tank of four males. She recorded how the males behaved in courtship and which males the females chose. She also recorded the redness of each male.

Featured scientist: Alycia R. Lackey from Michigan State University

Flesch–Kincaid Reading Grade Level = 7.9

More news on Alycia’s work on stickleback fish can be found at her BEACON blog post, “Making and Breaking a Species” and her blog post for the MSU museum

Dangerously bold

An aquarium filled with young bluegill sunfish. Bluegills are a common type of fish that live in freshwater lakes in the eastern United States.

An aquarium filled with young bluegill sunfish. Bluegills are a common type of fish that live in freshwater lakes in the eastern United States.

The activities are as follows:

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Just as each person has their own personality, animals in the same species can behave very different from one another! For example, pets like dogs have different personalities. Some have lots of energy, some are cuddly, and some like to be alone. Boldness is a behavior that describes whether or not an individual takes risks. Bold individuals take risks, while shy do not. The risks animals take have a big impact on their survival and the habitats they choose to search for food.

Bluegill sunfish are a type of fish that live in freshwater lakes and ponds across the world. Open water and cover are two habitats where young bluegill are found. The open water habitat in the center of the pond is the best place for bluegill to eat lots of food. However, the open water is risky and has very few plants or other places to hide. Predators can easily find and eat bluegill in the open water. The cover habitat at the edge of the pond has many plants and places to hide from predators, but it has less food that is best for bluegill to grow fast. Both habitats have costs and benefits – called a tradeoff.

To determine their personality, Melissa observed bluegill sunfish in the aquarium lab.

To determine their personality, Melissa observed bluegill sunfish in the aquarium lab.

Melissa is a scientist who is interested in whether differences in young bluegill behavior changes the habitats they choose to search for food. First, she looked at whether young bluegill have different personalities by bringing them into an aquarium lab and watching their behavior. She saw that just like in humans and dogs, bluegill sunfish had different personalities. Some bluegill took more risks and were bolder than others. Melissa wanted to know if these differences in behavior changed how the fish behaved back in the pond. She thought that bold fish would take more risks and use the open water habitat more than shy fish. Bold fish would then have more food and grow faster and larger. She thought that shy fish would play it safe and not take risks, so they would use the cover habitat. Shy fish would then eat less food and not be able to grow as large. Because the bold fish would be in the open water habitat, they might get eaten by predators more because shy fish would avoid predators. These differences in the habitats that the fish use would create a tradeoff based on personality.

Melissa designed a study to test the growth and survival of bold and shy fish. When she was watching the fish’s behavior in the lab, she determined if a fish was bold or shy. If a fish took the risk of leaving the safety of the vegetation in a tank so that it could eat food while there was a predator behind a mesh screen, they were called bold. If it did not eat, it was called shy. She marked each fish by clipping the right fin if it was bold or the left fin if it was shy. She placed 100 bold and 100 shy bluegill into an experimental pond with two largemouth bass (predators). The shy and bold fish started the experiment at similar lengths and weights. After two months, she drained the pond and found every bluegill that survived. She recorded survival and size (length and weight) for each fish and noted if it was bold or shy.

Featured scientist: Melissa Kjelvik from Michigan State University

Flesch–Kincaid Reading Grade Level = 7.3

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A view of the aquarium tank used to determine fish personality. A largemouth bass is placed to the left of the barrier, while 3 bluegill sunfish are placed to the right. If a sunfish swims out of the vegetation and eats a bloodworm dropped near the predator, it is considered bold.

A view of the aquarium tank used to determine fish personality. A largemouth bass is placed to the left of the barrier, while 3 bluegill sunfish are placed to the right. If a sunfish swims out of the vegetation and eats a bloodworm dropped near the predator, it is considered bold.

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